Discussion on Wave Spring Forming Process

Discussion on the forming process of wave springs Li Xuexin, Jiang Yuying, Liu Ying, through the cold press forming and material aging heat treatment experiments, proposed a wave elastic forming process simultaneously with pressure and heat treatment. Experiments show. This method can meet the design requirements of wave springs.

The wave spring is a type of washer spring which is formed by stamping of a steel sheet and has a plurality of waveforms in the circumferential direction. Mainly used in various clutch brakes, it is a key component, and its different shape affects the reliability of the clutch. Therefore, the shape and forming process of the wave spring is a common concern of producers and users. This paper discusses the forming process of wave springs.

1 The structure and material selection of the wave spring 1.1 The structure of the wave spring The wave spring, the wave spring structure distributes the peaks and troughs along the circumference, and the peak-to-valley is 60. The technical requirement is that the outer diameter of the wave spring is in the flattened state. 018 at 018, the tangential plane on the circle makes a waveform, the wave trough is to be smoothly connected; the loading test is compressed to 0.7 flattening, and the load is 200. The hardness of the 1.2 wave spring material is selected according to the reasonably selected material. Using the performance requirements of the structure and working principle, it is known that the two main forces are the axial force, resulting in an axial deformation of 0.30.8 1 in the opposite direction; under this deformation, a tangential torsional load is applied. The role of torque transmits the main power of the whole machine. The failure form has elastic loss and fatigue fracture, so its mechanical properties are required to be high elastic limit, high yield ratio and high fatigue strength. Due to the wide application of the clutch, it may work under atmospheric oleic acid and alkaline environment, and it may be damaged due to rust and corrosion during use. Reducing the performance of the yellowing requires frequent bonding and friction during work. The fever is big. The working temperature is higher. The spring 1 is very thin and the thinnest is less than 0.3. Therefore, in addition to the above properties, the wave spring material requires that the village shake only has good corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and the use of properties and related materials. Comparative analysis, decided to use 0,71741 for the production of bombs.

2 Determination of the shape of the wave spring The shape of the conventional wave spring is such that 36 sinusoidal waveforms are provided along the circumference. The wave spring is relatively large in the flattened state and the gap between the armatures is large, and + can meet the requirements of the clutch. The wave spring belongs to the diaphragm spring, and the deformation amount far exceeds the thickness of the wave spring. It is a kind of nonlinear large deformation elastic element; and the shape of the wave spring structure is more complicated. Therefore, it is decided to use the nonlinear large deformation finite element calculation method to determine the wave spring. Surface shape. Using the American 0 software, the mechanical model was calculated, and the curved shape of the wave spring conforming to the actual stress condition was obtained. 2 is a deformation network calculated by using the human 0 finite element pair to establish the mechanical model.

3 Wave spring forming process determines how the shape of the wave spring is a key factor affecting the use. How to ensure that the theoretical ideal curve shape is determined by the forming process, so the reasonable selection of the wave spring forming process can guarantee the technical requirements.

3.1 Determination principle of wave spring forming process The determination of any part production process is carried out around the technical requirements of the part. No matter what kind of art, the end of the farm is to meet the technical requirements of the parts. For the determination of the wave spring forming process of the factory, 4 samples must also meet the technical requirements. The working state of the mountain wave can be, the wave spring is subjected to both bending stress and torsional stress, and the load property is cyclic impact load and vibration. The failure mode has elastic loss and fatigue fracture, so it requires high elastic limit yield ratio and high fatigue strength. The material is stainless steel 01. The hardness and elastic limit of 7 people are very high. Therefore, these requirements for the use of wave springs should be fully considered when formulating the forming process. Technical requirements and material properties, in addition to the need to consider the 1 art, the actual production and production costs can only be comprehensively considered in many aspects of the flash true small energy can develop a perfect wave spring forming process to meet technical requirements and use requirements.

3.2 Determination of Wave Spring Forming Process The traditional wave spring shape is a plurality of sinusoidal waveforms. The forming process is first performed by cold pressing preforming, then by aging heat treatment, and finally all forming is completed. Pre-compression forming, 1 is more elastic in the village material, and has a large amount of rebound during cold pressing. Therefore, the forming mold with adjustable forming height is used, that is, the height difference between the peak and the trough of the cold pressing is theoretically calculated. The value of the difference is large, the difference is determined according to the experimental situation, and the final waveform is passed through, and the heat treatment is used to ensure. From this, the town knows that the waveform of the mountain corpse is uncertain and its waveform is uncertain. The finished product added by this forming process. Installed in the six devices, it is found that the wave spring can not be flattened, and the maximum clearance between the flange and the armature can reach more than 2, which is very different from the gap between the technical requirements, resulting in the clutch not working properly. The reason for this is that the spring has undergone unnecessary plastic deformation during preforming, and this plastic deformation cannot be completely eliminated in the subsequent aging treatment process. Therefore, the waveform is different from the theoretical waveform and cannot meet the technical requirements, so it cannot be used normally. This type of forming technique does not require waveforms from the design requirements of the waveform spring.

There is a difference in shape. The traditional wave spring shape is a sinusoidal waveform, and the shape of the wave spring discussed is a free complex curved surface, which is a curved surface obtained by establishing a mathematical model according to the actual stress state of the wave spring and using the data calculated by the finite element software. In the forming experiment, the forming die 13 processed by the calculation data was used for the experiment, and it was found that the shape and the shape of the forming die when the load was applied, and the shape of the unloading load was greatly different from the theoretical design data, and the large load was There is no obvious change in shape, which means that it has little to do with the magnitude of the applied load.

It can be seen that the above-mentioned forming process cannot satisfy the wave bomb, and the yield limit of any material is different in the normal temperature state and the heating state, and decreases as the heating temperature increases. If various press forming treatments are performed in a state where the yield limit of the material is exceeded, the shape of the load is maintained after the load is removed, and the state before the forming is not returned. According to this theory, it is considered that the wave spring is subjected to a forming process in its yield limit state.

The experimental method first performs an aging heat treatment on the wave spring material.

The specific method is to heat the corrugated spring blank to a constant temperature, heat-insulate 1 and then measure the mechanical properties and elasticity, and find that the mechanical component and elasticity are higher with the increase of the heating temperature. After reaching the temperature of the lake, the temperature of the experiment was decreased by one. At this temperature, the forming experiment was carried out, and the applied load was the load during the actual working of the wave spring. The shape and theoretical calculation of the shape of the yellowing wave were found, and it was determined that the yield limit of the material was exceeded at this temperature. It is appropriate to perform wave spring forming treatment at this temperature.

3.2.2 The formation of the wave spring forming process Di Dia 1 is compared with the experimental analysis to determine that the wave blank forming process is simultaneously performed by pressure forming and aging heat treatment. The specific method is to transfer down the 54th page of the date of receipt (1) fund project Zhengzhou City Science and Technology Research Project 20001062 computer application teaching and research.

4 The knot-shaped process is different from the wave spring in the traditional sense. The forming process which is carried out simultaneously with the press forming and the aging heat treatment is currently limited to the laboratory. If it is to be used for the actual production of mass production, further improvement is required, and the simultaneous heating of the mold and the spring blank is to be treated. Research in the future.

18 Chunying. Ying Yi. Zhao Yuning. Wait. Bo Jianxian Materials and Heat Treatment Process Selected Journal of Zhengzhou Textile Institute, 1973152, 1 Li Wenfang, Chen Kailiang, Chen Jianjiang. Optimized design of wave springs. Mechanical Science and Technology 3 Li Xuexin. On-line machining of wave spring forming die surfaces. Zhengzhou Textile Institute, m, fund project, Henan Province, science and technology research project 9510516

concentric reducer: the center of the size is on the same line. forming process: suppress necking, expanding suppress or necking plus expanding repression. some sizes can also be stamping. Forming process: suppress necking, expanding suppress or necking plus expanding repression, stamping.

Product Name:Concentric Reducers
Size:DN10-DN2500
Materials: A234 WBP-WP1-WP12-WP11, A403 WP 304-304L-316-316L, A402 WPL3-WPL 6,A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70,PG370,C20
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Standard:GB/ANSI/ GOST/ JIS/ DIN
Crafts: Cold extrusion, Thermoforming. 
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